What is DOM in javascript?

In web development, the Document Object Model (DOM) is a programming interface for web documents. It represents the page so that programs can change the document structure, style, and content. The DOM represents the document as nodes and objects. That way, programming languages can interact with the page.

The DOM is essentially a tree-like structure of HTML or XML elements that are generated by the browser when it loads an HTML or XML document. Each element in the DOM tree is represented by a JavaScript object, which can be manipulated using JavaScript methods and properties.

The DOM is important in web development because it allows developers to dynamically modify the content and structure of a web page in response to user interactions or other events. For example, JavaScript code can be used to add or remove elements from the DOM tree, change the styling of elements, or update the content of elements in real-time without requiring the page to be reloaded.

Some common uses of the DOM include:

  • Modifying the contents of a web page in response to user input or other events.
// Get the element to modify
const element = document.getElementById("my-element");

// Add an event listener to the element
element.addEventListener("click", () => {
  // Modify the element's contents
  element.textContent = "Clicked!";
  • Adding or removing elements from a web page dynamically.
// Create a new element
const newElement = document.createElement("div");

// Add some content to the element
newElement.textContent = "Hello, world!";

// Add the element to the page

// Remove the element from the page

  • Animating elements on a web page.
// Get the element to animate
const element = document.getElementById("my-element");

// Define the animation
const keyframes = [
  { transform: "scale(1)" },
  { transform: "scale(1.5)" },
  { transform: "scale(1)" },
const options = {
  duration: 1000,
  iterations: Infinity,

// Start the animation
element.animate(keyframes, options);
  • Validating form inputs before submission.
// Get the form element
const form = document.getElementById("my-form");

// Add an event listener to the form
form.addEventListener("submit", (event) => {
  // Get the input element
  const input = document.getElementById("my-input");

  // Validate the input value
  if (input.value === "") {
    // If the input is invalid, prevent the form from submitting
  • Reading and writing cookies or other browser storage mechanisms.
// Write a value to a cookie
document.cookie = "my-cookie=value";

// Read a value from a cookie
const cookieValue = document.cookie
  .split("; ")
  .find((row) => row.startsWith("my-cookie="))

What is BOM?

In web development, the Browser Object Model (BOM) is a set of objects provided by web browsers to enable JavaScript code to interact with the browser itself. The BOM represents various components of the browser window, such as the address bar, history, and location, and provides JavaScript access to these components.

Some common objects included in the BOM are:

  • window: Represents the browser window itself, and provides access to various properties and methods related to the window.
  • navigator: Provides information about the browser being used, such as its name, version, and platform.
  • location: Represents the URL of the current web page, and provides methods for navigating to other pages.
  • history: Represents the user’s browsing history, and provides methods for navigating forward and backward through the history.

The BOM is not standardized like the Document Object Model (DOM) and is implemented differently across different web browsers. This means that some BOM objects and methods may not be available in all browsers or may behave differently in different browsers.

Here is an example of how the BOM can be used to interact with the browser window:

// Open a new window
const newWindow = window.open("https://www.example.com", "myWindow", "width=400,height=400");

// Close the new window

// Display an alert box
window.alert("Hello, world!");

// Navigate to a new URL
window.location.href = "https://www.example.com";

// Print the current page